The horizontal and vertical arrows illustrate drain-only and gain-only bias variation, respectively. Dissipated power as a function of input power for each of the cases in Table 4. Paidi Key components in any wireless communication system are the high frequency power ampliers that must meet strict performance specications regarding power gain, output power, linearity and power added efciency PAE. Refer to Appendix C for more details. Regarding the bias paths obtained through optimization, Figure 5. The expression [i] indicates a discrete sequence with index i.

There are certain requirements for these radio transmitters that are worth naming: Both amplifiers have their outputs connected to the load RL. A different measure for nonlinearity 1 0. The chapters that follow describe methods based on simulation and measure- ment to apply dynamic biasing to different transistor technologies: AET is a linearity enhancement method that can also lead to efficiency enhancement. The differential probe provides 60 dB of common mode rejection rate, but the remaining common error can affect the current measurement.

The efficiency of the bias supplies is not addressed in this work, as it is a research problem on its own right [26],[5],[4]. For PAE, measured and simulated results match extremely well. When the input power reaches a certain threshold, usually at 6-dB back-off from the amplifiet envelope power PEPPA1 comes into saturation.

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The PA is designed to operate at a frequency of 2. Above that threshold PA2 will be switched on and begins operating as a linear amplifier. For an output power of 29 dBm there is a 1. Simplified block diagram of a dynamic biasing system.


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Some of the observed effects are threshold voltage shift, current collapse, reduction of short channel effect, light sensitiv- ity, transconductance frequency dispersion, gate-lag and drain-lag transients, and limited microwave power output [33]. Much higher efficiencies where obtained at back-off compared to a static-bias ideal class-A amplifier, specially for the quadratic input power bias variation.

By varying only the drain bias voltage with the envelope of the input signal, the amplifier can ideally achieve a class-B efficiency regardless of the level of the input envelope, while holding a flat gain ;ower 2. Their drawback is that they tend to converge rapidly towards the nearest local hhesis, which is usually far from the optimum [69].

The roll- off factor of the RRC filter is 0. The gate biasing was optimized separately for each of the two cases. If the addition respects the constraints, its error function is com- puted.

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In this figure and in those that follow; the drain current, gate voltage, drain voltage and load resistance are all normalized respect to their static- amplifieg class-A counterpart [9]. Pulsed single-tone measurements, especially at high input power levels, would be appropriate. The algorithm is explained in simple terms in Algorithm 3.

Both cases were measured with static and dynamic gate bias, for average output power levels of 28 dBm, 29 dBm and 30 dBm Figure 5.

The instantaneous drain bias voltage and drain bias current are measured with the Agilent MSOA oscilloscope. Some limitations would be the large number of input parameters it requires, and that it returns a discrete sequence relating the bias to the input or output power. Dynamic biasing in perspective carriers move at saturation velocity and the drain current is held constant even if vds is further increased. The main disadvantage of this approach is that different bandwidths are required for the amplitude and phase feedback tbesis.


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Just as important has been the insight that my cosupervisor, Karl Martin Gjertsen, contributed with all along. PAE and gain remain unaffected in both cases. If the PA is a third-order polynomial, and the DPD is a fifth-order polynomial, the composed system has an order of The red continuous line in Figure 3. At 0-dB relative input power the drain bias is 10 V for all curves, thus ideally all of the curves would intersect at peak input power.

This allows AET to be efficiently implemented with low cost and low complexity, resulting in high overall system efficiency.

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Proposed initial coefficients for the point-search algorithm. The gate and drain trackers amplify and offset these signals to the levels required by the device under test DUT.

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The maximum output current of the tracker is 1 A. These measures can be used for the optimization of bias functions in regards to dynamic biasing, and for DPD optimization.

The bias is fed in to the HBT transistor through bias tees at the base and the collector. The QAM input signal, described in Section 5. In addition, the PAPR of the error signal is much higher than that of the main signal, and several dB back-off might be required to achieve the powrr linearity. To allow for adequate current and obtain good ther- mal properties, power devices are designed as a number of cells connected in parallel often interconnected by air bridges.